This doc describes the objectives, guiding ideas, and techniques for group mitigation to cut back or stop native COVID-19 transmission. Neighborhood mitigation actions are actions that folks and communities can take to gradual the unfold of a brand new virus with pandemic potential. COVID-19 is an infectious illness brought on by a brand new coronavirus. Neighborhood mitigation actions are particularly necessary earlier than a vaccine or therapeutic drug turns into extensively accessible.
As a result of COVID-19 is very transmissible and will be unfold by individuals who have no idea they’ve the illness, danger of transmission inside a group will be troublesome to find out. Till broad-scale testing is extensively applied or we’ve got a extra complete and exact measure of illness burden, states and communities ought to assume some group transmission or unfold is happening.
People must comply with wholesome hygiene practices, keep at residence when sick, apply bodily distancing to decrease the chance of illness unfold, and use a fabric face overlaying (with some exceptions) in group settings when bodily distancing can’t be maintained. These common precautions are acceptable whatever the extent of mitigation wanted.
Defending the general public’s well being is paramount. As communities work to cut back the unfold of COVID-19, they’re additionally addressing the financial, social, and secondary well being penalties of the illness. State, native, tribal, and territorial officers are finest positioned to find out the extent of mitigation required. Mitigation methods ought to be possible, sensible, and acceptable; they need to be tailor-made to the wants of every group and applied in a fashion that minimizes each morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and doesn’t create or exacerbate any well being disparities.
The data that follows supplies a framework for states and localities as they think about which actions to take to mitigate group transmission of COVID-19 in the US. Choice and implementation of those actions ought to be guided by the extent of illness transmission (Desk 1). Demographic and different group traits, as properly public well being and healthcare system capability, will even drive decisionmaking on mitigation (Desk 2). Lastly, a set of doable cross-cutting mitigation methods for communities to think about is printed (Desk 3). Extra detailed and up to date setting or sector particular mitigation methods will be discovered right here.
The objective of group mitigation in areas with native COVID-19 transmission is to gradual its unfold and to guard all people, particularly these at elevated danger for extreme sickness, whereas minimizing the damaging impacts of those methods. These methods are used to reduce morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in societal sectors corresponding to colleges, workplaces, and healthcare organizations.
Implementation relies on:
- Emphasizing particular person accountability for implementing advisable personal-level actions
- Empowering companies, colleges, and different settings to implement acceptable actions
- Prioritizing settings that present crucial infrastructure companies
- Minimizing disruptions to every day life to the extent doable and making certain entry to well being care and different important companies.
- Neighborhood mitigation efforts intention to cut back the speed at which somebody contaminated is available in contact with somebody not contaminated, or cut back the likelihood of an infection if there’s contact. The extra an individual interacts with totally different individuals, and the longer and nearer the interplay, the upper the chance of COVID-19 unfold.
- Every group is exclusive. Applicable mitigation methods ought to be based mostly on the perfect accessible information. Resolution making will differ based mostly on the extent of group transmission and native circumstances. Consult with Desk 1.
- The traits of the group and its inhabitants, well being system and public well being capability, and the native capability to implement methods are necessary when figuring out group mitigation methods. Consult with Desk 2.
- As communities alter mitigation methods, they need to be certain that the healthcare system capability won’t be exceeded. Precautions ought to be taken to guard well being care professionals and different crucial infrastructure staff. Communities must guarantee healthcare programs have enough staffing, a surplus of inpatient and ICU beds, and significant medical tools and provides corresponding to PPE.
- As communities alter mitigation methods, they need to guarantee public well being capability won’t be exceeded. Public well being system capability depends on detecting, testing, contact tracing, and isolating those that are or is likely to be sick, or have been uncovered to recognized or suspected COVID-19 circumstances; you will need to cease broader group transmission and forestall communities from having to implement or strengthen additional group mitigation efforts.
- Consideration ought to be given to people who find themselves at larger danger for extreme sickness when figuring out and adjusting group mitigation methods.
- Sure settings and susceptible populations in a group are at significantly excessive danger for transmission. This contains however will not be restricted to congregate settings corresponding to nursing houses and different long-term care services, correctional services, and the homeless inhabitants.
- Mitigation methods will be scaled up or down, relying on the evolving native state of affairs, and what’s possible, sensible, and authorized in a jurisdiction. Any indicators of a cluster of recent circumstances or a reemergence of broader group transmission ought to end in a re-evaluation of group mitigation methods and a call on whether or not and the way mitigation may want to alter.
- Cross-cutting group mitigation methods will be organized into the next classes: selling behaviors that stop unfold; sustaining wholesome environments; sustaining wholesome operations; and getting ready for when somebody will get sick. Presuming a group will not be sheltering-in-place, cross-cutting methods below every rubric are outlined under and ought to be applied to the extent doable, and in accordance with the quantity of ongoing group transmission. Consult with Desk 3.
- Neighborhood mitigation methods ought to be layered upon each other and used on the similar time—with a number of layers of safeguards to cut back the unfold of illness and decrease the chance of one other spike in circumstances and deaths. Nobody technique is enough.
- There are vary of implementation selections when setting or adjusting group mitigation plans. These selections supply totally different ranges of safety from the chance of group transmission.
- Communities must determine the extent of danger that’s acceptable and make knowledgeable selections about implementing mitigation plans accordingly.
- People make selections about following the behavioral practices which can be advisable. Compliance to group mitigation choices will even influence the unfold of COVID-19.
- CDC affords setting-specific methods for quite a lot of sectors that embody companies, colleges, institutes of upper training, parks and leisure services, and different locations.
- Journey patterns inside and between jurisdictions will influence efforts to cut back group transmission. Coordination throughout state and native jurisdictions is crucial – particularly between jurisdictions with totally different ranges of group transmission.