The £20 million venture to enhance and refurbish elements of the 2 aqueducts, the primary 34 miles lengthy and the second 23.5 miles lengthy, which take water from Loch Katrine to 2 of Scotland’s largest water therapy works, will assist enhance the safety of the water provide to clients for generations to return.
The funding was the most recent section of the most important improve to the megastructure for the reason that first aqueduct was in-built 1859, when it was hailed as one of many world’s best engineering feats of its day.
A complete of 17 miles of tunnel sections had concrete and masonry repairs and 10 bridge sections had masonry and metalwork repairs carried out by a workforce of about 35 employees over the previous two years, with a three-month break as a result of Covid pandemic.
The aqueduct takes uncooked water by gravity, without having for pumping, alongside its two routes from the south shore of Loch Katrine to the Milngavie and Balmore Water Remedy Works (WTW), simply north of Glasgow, which deal with about 550m litres of water each day, sufficient to fill greater than 275 Olympic swimming swimming pools or greater than six million baths.
The unique aqueduct contains tunnels via mountainous terrain within the shadow of Ben Lomond and bridges over the valleys of the Duchray, Endrick and Blane watercourses. It was constructed to offer Glasgow with its first correct water provide.
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A second aqueduct was constructed to accommodate the fast growth of Glasgow within the late 19th century. They’re as a lot as six miles aside on some stretches, simply 5 metres aside on others.
The complete Katrine Aqueduct scheme value £3.2m to construct, which might be about £320m in as we speak’s costs.
Milngavie WTW serves greater than 700,000 folks throughout a lot of the Glasgow space and Balmore WTW serves about 600,000 clients in areas from Bishopbriggs, Lennoxtown and Torrance within the west to elements of north east Glasgow and Cumbernauld, north Motherwell and Linlithgow, Bo’ness and elements of Grangemouth within the east.
One of the difficult elements of the venture, which was carried out for Scottish Water by contractors George Leslie, was work to stabilise uncovered rock sections, throughout which the venture workforce used an uncommon method that concerned drilling into the rock, inserting metal anchor bolts as much as two metres lengthy, attaching metal mesh reinforcements after which spraying concrete till structural integrity was established.
Complicated drilling rigs needed to be arrange inside the tunnels to put in the stabilising rock anchors.
Provided that a few of this work was greater than half a mile alongside the aqueduct from entry chambers, electrical buggies had been used to maneuver tools, supplies and employees.
The complete size of the ‘new’ and ‘outdated’ aqueducts had been closed at totally different occasions in the course of the venture. However, via the usage of cross-connections in our system and by pumping water from elsewhere on our community, we had been in a position to preserve regular water provides to clients.
Strict adherence to constraints and restrictions had been essential to make sure that the character of the historic construction was preserved.
Reconstructed areas of masonry on each a part of the construction needed to be matched with the present stonework by way of look and portray and protecting coating methods had been chosen fastidiously to mix with the encompassing construction.
Scottish Water liaised with Historic Surroundings Scotland concerning the work, together with refurbishment of the Duchray Outdated Truss Bridge and the Kinlochard and Castleburn bridges, that are listed constructions.
In addition to improve work to each aqueducts, the venture included a survey to enhance our understanding and feed right into a 25-year administration plan for the aqueducts.
They are saying it’s the first time in residing reminiscence they’ve carried out a full inside survey of the brand new aqueduct.
David Wilkinson, Scottish Water’s senior venture supervisor, mentioned: “The Katrine aqueducts, had been a exceptional feat of engineering of their day and stay an impressive instance of sustainable civil engineering public works development.
“They’ve stood the take a look at of time and are nonetheless performing very effectively however, regardless of some enchancment work over time, they required substantial enchancment and refurbishment to make sure they proceed to function effectively.
“This funding by Scottish Water will assist guarantee we proceed to offer a first-class service to an enormous variety of clients for a few years to return and can assist preserve the legacy of our Victorian forefathers who constructed them a greater than 160 years in the past.
“All the workforce really feel privileged to have been concerned in such a novel venture. All of us felt a level of accountability for ensuring that the complete scope of remedial work was delivered, and that it was achieved to the excessive requirements set by the Victorian engineers.”
Opened by Queen Victoria in 1859, the Katrine Aqueduct is considered one of Scotland’s most essential, and environmentally pleasant, items of infrastructure.
The aqueduct continues to be as environment friendly and environmentally pleasant now because it was then as a result of it takes water by gravity – with out the necessity for pumping utilizing electrical energy – from Loch Katrine to the Milngavie and Balmore WTWs earlier than it’s distributed to clients.
If the water did must be pumped from loch to therapy works, it might value Scottish Water greater than £6m a yr.
The sustainability of the aqueduct, which is inspiring Scottish Water because it strives to remodel its actions to achieve zero carbon emissions 5 years forward of nationwide 2045 targets, is underlined by key figures which present that:
● it presently provides about 110 million gallons of water per day.
● it was laid at a gradient of 10 inches per mile, that means that it drops by one metre for each 6334 metres horizontally or by simply 6.6 metres from the north finish at Loch Katrine to the south at Milngavie and so is nearly flat.
● In the event that they weren’t ready to make use of gravity on the aqueduct and needed to pump water utilizing electrical energy it might require about 64.eight million kWh per yr, which might be sufficient to energy 18,200 homes for a yr.
David Wilkinson, Scottish Water’s senior venture supervisor, mentioned: “It’s a fantastic tribute to the individuals who designed and constructed it that the aqueduct continues to be so environmentally-friendly and delivering huge advantages to Scotland within the 21st century.
“As Scottish Water is dedicated to doing all we are able to to scale back the affect we have now on the surroundings and minimise our carbon emissions, the aqueduct ought to function an inspiration to us all.”
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